# Measurement

It is more accurate to measure ingredients by weighing them rather than measuring them by volume. There are many variables when measuring by volume that can affect the actual amount of product being used in a formula. For example, sifting can produce different results. Without weighing the product first there would be no way to know just how much you are using. The temperature of product can cause a difference in the actual weight of the product. Eggs are another example. They come in various sizes. Obviously a small egg weighs much less than an extra large egg. This could amount to a considerable difference depending on how many eggs a formula calls for. In general, a large egg is the normal size referenced in a formula or recipe.

Scaling is the bakers term for measuring ingredients.

The following ingredients (and only the following ingredient) may sometimes be measured by volume at a ratio of 1 pint per pound or 1 liter per kilogram:

• Water

• Milk

• Eggs

For convenience, volume measures of liquids are frequently used when preparing products other than baked goods — such as sauces, syrups, puddings, and custards.

**Units of Measure**

US customary units, also known in the United States as English units, Imperial units, or standard units, are units of measurement that are currently used in the USA.

Most other countries use the Metric System as their standardized measuring units. The metric system is a decimalized system of measurement. A standard set of prefixes in multiples of 10 may be used to derive larger and smaller amounts. However, the prefixes for multiples of 1000 are the most commonly used.

**Basic Units**

Quantity Unit Abbreviation Conversion Equivalents

Weight gram g 1/32 oz. Apx.1/2 tsp of flour sl< g

Volume liter L slightly (sl) > qt

Length meter m slightly (sl) > yd or 3 feet

Temperature degree Celsius ºc freezing point of water (32ºF)

100º C is the boiling point of water (212º F)

An increase or decrease of 1º C = apx. 2º F

**Divisions and Multiples**

Prefix/Example Meaning Abbreviation

Kilo- 1000 k

Kilogram 1000 grams kg = slightly > than 2 lbs.

Deci- 1/10 d

Deciliter 0.1 liter dl = slightly < 1/2 cup

Centi- 1/100 c

Centimeter .001 meter cm = apx. 3/8”

Centiliter .001 liter cl = apx. 2 tsp

Milli- 1/100 meter m

Millimeter .001 meter mm

**Units of Measure US System**

**Weight**

1 lb = 16 oz

**Volume**

1 Gallon = 4 quarts

1 Quart = 2 pints = 4 cups = 32 (fl) oz 1(fl) oz = 1 oz

1 Pint = 2 cups = 16 (fl) oz =1 lb = 16 oz

1 Cup = 8 (fl) oz = ½ lb = 8oz

1 (fl) oz = 2 tbsp

1 tbsp = 3 tsp

**Abbreviations of US Units of Measure**

Pound lb. the # symbol is used by professional bakeries to designate 1 lb

Ounce oz

Gallon gal

Quart qt

Pint pt

Fluid Ounce (fl) oz

Tablespoon tbsp

Teaspoon tsp

Inch in or "

Foot ft or '

**Converting to Metric**

**Weight**

1 oz = 28.35 grams

1 gram = 0.035 ounce

1 Pound = 454 grams

1 kilogram = 2.2 pounds

**Volume**

1 fluid ounce = 29.57 millimeters

1 millimeter = 0.034 fluid ounce

1 cup = 237 millimeters

1 quart = 946 millimeters

1 liter = 33.8 fluid ounces

**Length**

1 in = 25.4 millimeters

1 centimeter = 0.39 inch

1 meter = 39.4 inches

**Temperature**

Fahrenheit to Celsius = Subtract 32 and multiply by 5/9

Celsius to Fahrenheit = Add 32 and multiply by 9/5

**Weighing**

Zero or Tear Weight, simply means that the scale needs to be adjusted so that the receptacle you are using to measure in is not included in the final weight. The following scales use different methods to achieve the same result. Obviously the digital scale is much more practical and easier to use for the home baker.

**Bakers Scale** – the scale must be balanced (zero out or tear weight) and uses separate weights to measure ingredients.

**Digital Scale **– uses electronic means to weigh ingredients. Has a tear button to zero-out the scale in order to balance it